1.What is living donor organ donation?
Means a person during his life can donate one kidney (one kidney is capable for maintaining the body functions), a portion of pancreas (half of the pancreas is adequate for sustaining pancreatic functions) and a part of the liver (the segments of liver will regenerate after a period of time).
2.Can I donate organ while I am still alive?
Yes, but not all organs and tissues, only few organs can be donated during life. The most common organ donated by a living person is a kidney as a healthy person can lead a completely normal life with only one functional kidney. Kidneys transplanted from living donors have a better chance of long-term survival than those transplanted from deceased donor. Nearly 90% of all kidney transplants currently in India are from living donor.
In addition to kidney, part of a liver can be transplanted and it may also be possible to donate a segment of a lung and, in a very small number of cases, part of the small bowel. For all forms of living donor transplants the risk to the donor must be considered very carefully. Before a living donor transplant can go ahead there are strict regulations to meet and a thorough process of assessment and discussion.
3.What are the different types of living organ donation?
Living Near Related Donors: Only immediate blood relations are accepted usually as donors viz., parents, siblings, children, grandparents and grand children (THOA Rules 2014). Spouse is also accepted as a living donor in the category of near relative and is permitted to be a donor.
Living Non- near relative Donors: are other than near relative of recipient or patient. They can donate only for the reason of affection and attachment towards the recipient or for any other special reason.
SWAP Donors: In those cases where the living near-relative donor is incompatible with the recipient, provision for swapping of donors between two such pairs exists, when donor of first pair matches with the second recipient and donor of second pair matches with the first recipient This is permissible only for near relatives as donors.
4.Is there age limit for living donor?
Yes, there is some age-limit for living organ donation. Living donation should be done after 18 year of age.
5.What is Swap donation?
Sometimes in the family, there is a potential related donor who is otherwise willing but due to blood group mis-matching criteria or due to some other medical reasons is not fit to donate organ to that particular recipient in family. Further, in another family similar situation exists. However, in these two families, donor of one family may become medically fit for recipient of other family and vice versa. These two families then make a pair and make organ transplant possible for these two recipients of different families. This is called ҳwap donationҠtransplantation. Swap transplant is legally permitted in THOA (Amended) act 2012.
6.Will I become medically unfit after organ donation?
No, It is basic principle of living donation program that person remains absolutely healthy for the rest of his/her life after donation. Thus, donor is not medically unfit for any purpose. However, in certain situation, living organ donor is treated differently. Like in the Armed Forces, an organ donor is not taken as normal and donor faces issues related to Promotion in job etc.
7.Is it possible to receive organs from a friend or other than near relative?
As per Transplantation of Human Organ Act, any living person other than near relative can also donate organ for the reason of affection and attachment towards recipient or for any other special reason. Such cases have to be approved by the Authorization Committee of the Hospital, where the transplant is going to take place. Approval of authorization Committee is mandatory in all other than cases involving relatives.
If such authorization committee is not existing in the Hospital then it can be approved by the respective district or state level Authorization committee of the district (or state, if no committee at district level), where the transplant hospital is located.